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Unternavigation im Bereich: The Procedure

The analysis

The Ruma Marker System is more than just the search for the administered marker. We use 4 pillars to test the urine samples for manipulation from all perspectives:

Marker
analysis

Creatinine
analysis

Glucose
analysis

Sample integrity
analysis

The Marker Analysis determines whether the urine sample contains the administered market and whether it is available in sufficient quantity. Complete absence of the market is an indication of mix-up. Very little market volume indicates dilution. This is also applicable for dilution with “clean” urine.

The Creatinine Analysis examines the dilution level of the urine sample. There is a specific correlation between the creatinine contents and market contents when our system is used. If urine is diluted only with urine and creatinine content has to match, we will also discover this form of manipulation through this relationship.

The Glucose Analysis ensures that the marker has actually been drunk by the patient and not spit into the urine from other sources. The co-administered table sugar is normally absorbed by the body and should not found in the urine sample. If this is the case, this indicates following explanations:

- Body Bypass, i.e. the marker was not actually imbibed by the patient
- The patient is suffering from diabetes
- Methadone was not imbibed, but injected.

The Sample Integrity Analysistests the urine sample for possible chemical manipulations including pH value measurement and test for oxidants.

In the following sections, we explain how these analyses are interrelated to each other to discover manipulations.

Mix-up

Manipulation method
Mixing up the sample is the widely known form of manipulation in urine test. In this case, the test subject attempts to give the “clean” urine sample he has brought along instead of his own urine sample. For this purpose, small bags hidden in the body with a hose to the genital area as well as commercial systems with integrated artificial penis are used. Even the application of foreign urine sample into owns bladder is one of the methods known from the practice.
Conventional visual inspections often help in discovering such mix-ups, but not always. Comparative studiesprove that cheating with foreign urine sample is possible even with careful visual inspection. For example, Prof. Backmund, Board Member of the German Society for Addiction Medicine, addressed this topic in 2007 and reached an obvious conclusion. Even the additional testing of sample temperature has proven to be less helpful, because the urine sample brought along or in the body is brought to the right temperature with the help of small technical devices.
(See: G. Skopp, L. Pötsch, J. Becker, J. Röhrich, R. Mattern: Zur präanalytischen Phase chemisch-toxikologiser Untersuchungen, Rechtsmedizin (1998) 8:163 - 167; Springer-Verlag)

Our solution
Ingesting one of the different Ruma Marker ensures that the urine sample submitted originates from the right person. The laboratory will test whether the administered marker is present in the sample in sufficient quantity. Further analyses help in determining whether the marker has actually passed through the body of the test subject or whether it has been spewed into foreign urine sample.

Internal / external dilution

Manipulation method
Often an attempt is made to dilute the urine sample by drinking lot of fluids before submitting the urine sample or by adding other fluids to the urine sample, which results in a situation that the drugs in the sample are below the limits of detection. This manipulation method is well documented in the literature and it promises success especially in case of quick tests.

Our solution
Urine is tested for dilution by measuring the creatinine concentration. Irrespective of whether the sample has been manipulated internally by drinking fluids or externally by adding fluids to the sample, this method has proven to be very reliable.

Even here the marker provides valuable additional services: if the urine sample containing drugs is diluted with clean urine, the creatinine measurement alone cannot discover this, because creatinine concentration will be within the normal range. However, even this form of dilution can be detected with certainty by comparing marker and creatinine concentration.

Chemical manipulation

Manipulation method
Manipulation with chemicals is another method to avoid a positive result in the urine test. In addition to the normal household substances such as soap, vinegar, lemon juice or bleaching agents, there is a wide palette of products available in the market, which promises a “clean” sample.
Unlike dilution, addition of chemicals is used to make the urine sample unusable for analysis or to destroy the drug molecules.

Our solution
The Ruma Marker System uses special, purposeful analytical method to cover the whole spectrum of chemical manipulation. When we developed our method, we have taken all the available commercial products into consideration, whereby such products make drug traces “disappear” in conventional laboratory analyses.