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Studies

Urine-kinetics of Low Molecular Polyethylene Glycols Following an Oral Capsule Ingestion
Baum et al., 15(4): 1-6, 2017; Article no.JALSI.38741

Results: PEG could be clearly detected in all subjects after 60 minutes, regardless of drinking volume, alcohol consumption, or urine flow. At the latest 22 hours following intake, the marker reattained baseline values in all participants.

Discussion: PEG capsules can be used as safe means for urine marking in a time interval of at least 60 minutes between oral intake and urine sampling is respected. Furthermore, using different marker combinations, this method can be applied day by day in routine urine drug testing without interference with previously taken markers.

The influence of Foods and Beverages on Polyethylene Glycol Marker Detection in Urine
Einw├Ąchter et al., J Addict Res Ther 2019, 10:1

Main results: Both the caloric and the fluid intake significantly influenced PEG marker concentrations in urine. The 40 mins resorption phase led to a detection rate between 81% and 100%. All subjects were tested positive for PEG markers following the 60 mins resorption phase.

Conclusion: The marker detection following a PEG marker containing capsule is a valid method, when individual thresholds and a marker resorption phase of 60 mins are taken into account. That holds true independently of the time interval between meal and marker intake, meal composition, and beverage volume.

Process Reliability and Psychological Stress in Urine Sample Collection for Drug Testing: A Pilot Study
Baum et al., 19(1): 1-12, 2018; Article no.JALSI.44565

Results: Even within a given institution, supervision is performed individually different with respect to distance to the genital, direct or indirect view, and accuracy. Supervision evokes serious psychological stress to both patient and staff. The marker system requires less working hours.

Conclusion: From the point of view of the acting supervisors, the marker system improves drug screenings at all levels. Employees have more time to carry out their actual duties, safety with respect to manipulations increases, and the psychological stress is significantly reduced on both sides.

Adulteration of Urine Samples, Discovery and Mitigation
Huppertz et al. 16(4): 1-8, 2018; Article no.JALSI.40427

Results: The effect of oxidants, such as chromate, hypochlorite, peroxide, nitrite and perchloric acid depends strongly on the pH-value of the sample. In untreated urine, their effect is rather low, only in combination with strongly acidic pH-values these chemicals develop their maximum impact. In addition to the oxidants, the analysis can also be disturbed by strong bases, such as caustic soda, strong acid or detergents (dishwashing liquid). These can be detected quickly by their suppression of the internal standard signals. Further investigation has shown that the effect of the adulterants can be reduced by adding buffer solutions and reducing agents to the sample immediately after urine delivery.

Conclusion: This study shows that there are just a few manipulants showing a significant influence on the GCMS result and they all can be detected by the selected tests on manipulants.